Like many college campuses, Northern Arizona University (NAU) has a history of campus-wide parking challenges. Over time, NAU has constructed four parking garages, eight resident parking lots, metered parking, and commuter and employee-only lots. NAU has also worked to increase Mountain Link bus, Louie Line and Rapid Ride shuttle services, and established two-way bike lanes throughout campus. The University built the first campus parking garage in 1990 for Mountain View Hall residents. The Knoles Garage opened in 2007 as NAU's first non-residential parking garage. In 2012, the San Francisco Parking Garage provided additional parking. The Hilltop Townhomes Parking Garage opened to residents in 2013. Annual parking prices have risen from $2 for lot permits in 1978 to $530 to park in a garage in 2016.