Some of the language published in newspapers and magazines about the Flagstaff All-Indian Pow-Wow from the first celebration through the 1960s is clearly offensive by today’s standards. Terms like Injun, Squaw, Buck, and Red Man leap from the page. Newspaper headlines illustrate common injurious perceptions and the underlying discrimination.

Libraries and archives routinely grapple with outdated and derogatory language inherent in some original publications, documents, and photographs. While archivists cannot change the historic record, Cline Library staff strives to provide context and culturally responsive language in cooperation with Native Nations when describing and presenting archival materials.


Introduction  |  Early years  |  Recollections  |  Language  |  Final years