Diaries to the Past

 

Objectives:

 

      Identify, analyze and interpret primary sources

      Make generalizations about early human societies and how they met their needs through hunting, gathering and farming.

      Compare and contrast differing ideas, values and beliefs.

 

Overview:

 

      Students will be writing a first person diary entry telling about life in prehistoric times. They can pretend they are a Paleo-Indian for their first entries, then Prehistoric Puebloan (also known as Anasazi) and Pueblo person for their next entries.

 

      Note: The name "Anasazi," is a Navajo word meaning "ancient enemy." Many anthropologists and historians are using the name Prehistoric or Ancestral Puebloan instead.

 

      Diary entries may vary, depending on the grade level of your class. For example, elementary students may write three to five sentences and draw accompanying illustrations for each section. Third through fifth grade students can write two - three paragraphs per section to describe their prehistoric life.

 

      Using photographs from pueblos, projectile points and rock art in Arizona to draw inspiration, students can add numerous illustrations to their diaries.

 

Grade Level/Subject Area

 

      3 8

      Arizona History

 

Materials:

 

      Teacher made sample diary

      Construction paper

      Lined or white paper

      Crayons and markers

      Flagstaff History for Kids!

      Photographs from NAU Special Collections and Archives

        Prehistoric Arrowheads

        Pottery from Pueblo III and IV

        Canyon de Chelly: Antelope Ruin

        Cliff Dwelling: Walnut Canyon

        Cliff Dwelling: Montezuma Castle

        View of Wupatki

        Wukoki Ruin, Wupatki National Monument

        Petrified Forest Petroglyphs

        Glen Canyon Petroglyphs

 

 

 

Accommodations:

 

For younger students, the distinction between the Prehistoric Puebloan and Pueblo people may be confusing. Modify the diary to include just the Paleo-Indian and Pueblos.

 

Instructional Strategies:

 

1.      Read the Flagstaff History For Kids! web page with the class, that tells about life here 11,000 year ago for the Paleo-Indians. Discuss the Prehistoric Puebloan at 2,500 years ago and the Pueblo people at 1,000. Explain how the Prehistoric Pueblo peoples learned new skills, moved around and transitioned over time (which is why we separate them into distinct groups).

 

2.      Ask students questions about what life might have been like in Flagstaff thousands of years ago. Show photographs of pueblos, arrowheads, pottery and rock art in Arizona. Let students imagine how they would have made these implements.

 

      How did Paleo- Indians get their food?

      How did the Pueblos get their food?

      What types of food did they eat?

      What did their clothes look like?

      What kinds of houses did each live in?

      Did they move around or stay in one place?

2.      Use a chart to write down characteristics of each civilization. Label one column "Paleo-Indian" and "Prehistoric Puebloan" and "Pueblo." This may be done on the chalkboard, during class discussion or students can fill out their own charts individually. This will help students differentiate between each group.

 

3.      Vocabulary lists or charts may be helpful for new terms, especially for younger students. Words may include: Paleo (or Paleolithic), Prehistoric Puebloan, Pueblo, nomad.

 

Student Project Instructions

 

1. Construct a 4 page diary with a cover page. Take one white blank piece of paper and one colored piece of paper. Fold both in half to make a booklet.

 

2. Paleo-Indian diary entry: Describe all parts of "your" daily life as a Paleo-Indian. Write about your house, clothing, daily activities and meals, and environment. Include one of your vocabulary words.

 

For example: What kind of house would you live in? A cave? A tent? How would you make your clothing? What animals would you hunt for food? What plants would you gather to eat? What might the weather be like?

 

3. Prehistoric Puebloan diary entry: Describe all parts of "your" daily life as an early puebloan. Write about your house, clothing, daily activities and meals, and environment.

 

For example: Describe how you might build a pit house. What kind of baskets do you make? What type of plants do you use? Do you use plants to make other objects?

 

4. Pueblo diary entry: Describe all parts of "your" daily life as a Pueblo. Study photographs from Wupatki. Write about your house, clothing, daily activities and meals, and environment. Include one of your vocabulary words.

 

For example: How did you build your adobe brick house? What toys do you have? Can you make them? What games do you play? How do you get your food? What plants do you grow in your garden? Do visitors come to your house?

 

5. Art: Study the photographs of Petroglyphs. Add your own rock art to your diary. On your front cover, illustrate a Paleo-Indian scene. On your back cover, draw a scene from a Pueblo village.

 

Extension: Arrange a field trip one of the many national parks and monuments in Arizona that contain the dwellings and history of Pueblo life.

 

Assessment:

At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

 

      Identify characteristics of Paleo-Indian life 11,000 years ago.

      Identify characteristics of Pueblo life about 1,000 years ago.

      Differentiate between the Prehistoric Puebloans (also known as Anasazi) and Publeo peoples.

      Compare and contrast the differences between the people in the three time periods.

 

 

References:

Bremer, J. Michael (1989). Walnut Canyon: Settlement and use. Arizona Archaeological Society, 23.

 

Burchett, Tim. (1990) Household organization at Wupatki Pueblo (Master's thesis, Northern Arizona University, December 1990).

 

Coder, Christopher (2000). An introduction to Grand Canyon prehistory. Grand Canyon, AZ: Grand Canyon Association.

 

Grant, Campbell (1978). Canyon de Chelly: Its people and rock art. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

 

Lamb, Susan (1995). Wupatki National Monument. Tucson, AZ: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association.

 

Wupatki National Monument

Walnut Canyon National Monument

Canyon de Chelly National Monument

 

Montezuma Castle National Monument

 

 

This lesson correlates to the following Arizona Social Studies Standards:

FOUNDATIONS (Grades 1-3)

FOCUS: Arizona

1SS-E2. Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric American Indians in Arizona, including the impact of, and adaptations to geography, with emphasis on:

PO 1. how archaeological and anthropological research gives us information about prehistoric people

PO 2. characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their development of tools and adaptation to environments

PO 3. development of agriculture with the domestication of plants

PO 4. the distinctive cultures of theAnasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon, including where they lived, their agriculture, housing, decorative arts, and trade networks

PO 5. how prehistoric cultures adapted to, and altered, their environment, including irrigation canals and housing

BY LEVEL: ESSENTIALS (Grades 4-8) STANDARD 1: HISTORY

Students analyze the human experience through time, recognize the relationships of events and people, and interpret significant patterns, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in Arizona, American, and world history.

FOUNDATIONS (Grades 4-5)

1SS-E1. Understand and apply the basic tools of historical research, including chronology and how to collect, interpret, and employ information from historical materials.

Note: Historical research skills and analytical skills. These skills are to be learned and applied to the content standards for grades 4-5

FOCUS: Arizona

1SS-E2. Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric American Indians in Arizona, including the impact of, and adaptations to geography, with emphasis on:

PO 1. how archaeological and anthropological research gives us information about prehistoric people

PO 2. characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their development of tools and adaptation to environments

PO 3. development of agriculture with the domestication of plants

PO 4. the distinctive cultures of the Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon, including where they lived, their agriculture, housing, decorative arts, and trade networks

PO 5. how prehistoric cultures adapted to, and altered, their environment, including irrigation canals and housing